@rfc2822 Thanks for your response. I am going to chalk this up to Nextcloud’s issue as well. While adding a new photo doesn’t fix it, recreating the whole contact does. I don’t have that many contacts, so it’s not a huge deal to recreate. I kind of need to clean-up and update them anyway, so this will give me a chance to do that.
@j-ed You were right! The issue was on the Nextcloud side - apparently some of the metadata of my contacts had been switched around. I fixed that and now my problem is solved. Thanks for the quick help.